Notes

1. Blommaert calls this a ‘paralogism’, an unintentionally invalid argument)

2. This comparison appears on the very first page of the seminal edition of Language on endangered languages (Hale et al. 1992, 1): ‘The process [of language loss – AdS] is not unrelated to the simultaneous loss of diversity in the zoological and botanical worlds.’ In Wurm (1991, 2), the first chapter of Robins and Uhlenbeck (1991), this standard trope turns up on the second page.

3. Fishman (2001, 453) notes that minorities encounter discrimination on the labor market even if they do learn the dominant language, for other reasons.

4. In his more pensive study of ways of the prevention and reversal of language abandonment, Joshua Fishman (1991) concedes that you can perfectly well be ‘Yian’ (rather than ‘Xian,’ where X is the dominant language and culture) without speaking ‘Yish’, but sees this as something of a lesser form of ‘Yishness.’ Although Fishman resolutely distances himself from ethnocentrism and racism (p. 30), his concern to preserve communities’ languages nonetheless inspire him with misgivings about ‘mixed marriages,’ influxes of migrants, and even large-scale movements from rural to urban areas (p. 164). Precisely this thoughtful plea reveals that this is a program with far deeper political implications than mere concern for language preservation, a program in which the autonomy of communities, cultural reconstruction, and the consolidation of the borders between communities all make an entrance as enabling conditions.

5. f. De Swaan (2002, 58-80).

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